Backend software is responsible for storing data and processing user requests in an application. "Server side code" is the programming language used to write backend software. There are a variety of backend technologies for web development, each with their unique advantages and disadvantages.
In comparison to client-side code, server-side code is more powerful because it runs on a server rather than a user's device. However, the complexity of backend development technologies means that it can be challenging to write, debug and ensure how to choose backend technology, or which backend language is best for web development. And so, in this blog, we will walk you through it all to make it easier for you.
The Role of Backend Development in Website Development
When it comes to website development, the backend is a crucial component that is responsible for the server-side of the website. A typical backend architecture consists of three core components, namely the database, application, and server.
The backend software is designed to power up the website's functionality, and the programs developed by backend developers facilitate the communication of database information to the browser.
As we move into 2023, the role of backend development technologies in web development is set to become even more critical as businesses seek to expand rapidly. To keep up with this trend, it's important to identify the top backend technologies for web development that are likely to dominate the industry in 2023.
Without further ado, let’s walk you through the 10 best backend development technologies that are set to rule the roost in 2023.
See More: Python vs. Node js: Which backend technology to choose in 2022?
10 Leading Backend Technologies in 2023 and Beyond
Choosing the right backend technology is a crucial decision that can have a significant impact on the performance, scalability, and functionality of your website. With so many backend development technologies to choose from, it can be challenging to know where to begin.
When selecting a backend language for web development, it's essential to consider factors such as the project's requirements, the skill set of your development team, and the level of community support available.
The choice of backend language can affect your website's speed, security, and user experience. Therefore, it's essential to evaluate the pros and cons of each backend language before making a decision. Here’s a list of the top 10 backend technologies worth considering in 2023 and beyond.
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1. Node.js for Consistency Purposes
Node.js has its own runtime environment. This is the reason why it is popular among the developer community. Since Node.js is efficient, it is preferred to develop high-end apps development as well as video streaming.
a. Best for Real-Time Apps
Node.js is asynchronous, non-blocking, and single-threaded in nature. That’s why Node.js is the best backend language for real-time applications.
b. Easy to Hire Developers
c. Irresistible Microservices in Nodejs
Node.js is best for microservices architecture as it is a lightweight technology. It allows breaking application logic into small modules, thus has better flexibility. The developers can add more functions to the existing ones, making Node.js a preferred backend programming language. Also, as the developers can reuse the codes, the performance and productivity of the website are increased.
d. Nodejs Tools and Frameworks
In recent years, Express.js has become one of the most popular Node.js frameworks. The reason behind this is simple. Express.js is a minimalist, fast and opinionated solution. Moreover, it renders enough mobile app and website features to enhance the backend development process. What’s more, Express.js is flexible and doesn’t impose any strict rules to handle a respective task.
2. Python for high-level dynamics
To put into perspective. Python is very similar to the English language we use in everyday life. The backend programming language has a simple syntax which allows even the rookie coders to learn the language fast. Because it is immaculately easy to read, developers working on the same projects can have better communication in understanding the code.
Python has no research contentions or deadlocks. Thus, it doesn’t take much effort to write and maintain asynchronous code using Python. Moreover, as each unit of the code runs separately, it is easier for the developers to handle them. Because of such an immaculate feature, the Python backend programming language has been able to maintain its longevity even after 30 years.
According to CodinGame’s developer survey of 2021, Python is the third-best programming language in the developer’s community. The scale of Python’s popularity is exceptional. For instance, in 2020, it was awarded the title of TIOBE programming language of the year. Its popularity is a testimony to its top-notch features.
Python has a less-limited programming approach in comparison to other backend programming languages. Because of its flexibility and multiple paradigms, It is an ideal language for budding startups. Since we are living in a dynamic business world, it is best suited for the established players of the market.
Let us now see some of the leading frameworks for website development using Python.
Web Development Frameworks Using Python
This framework is highly used for mid-range projects and fully-fledged web applications. Moreover, Django has built-in features that simplify the web development process and allows code reuse. The framework synchronizes well with MySQL, Oracle SQL, and other databases.
This Python backend development framework provides management solutions that can be easily customized. Moreover, Flask is a micro-framework that is used for solutions that mainly prefer lean functionality. Also, it is used to create prototypes.
With Pyramid, the developers can start small and scale big according to the requirement. This framework is used with either extended plugins or various databases. Pyramid is mainly used when there is a need of implementing various solutions in one task.
3. Kotlin: The answer to developer’s common problems
Kotlin is a versatile backend programming language that runs on the Java Virtual Machine and is highly preferred for Android development, with Google's official support. One of the main advantages of using Kotlin is that it allows developers to write fewer lines of code while maintaining readability, resulting in fewer bugs and allowing developers to focus on other crucial tasks.
In 2023, Kotlin is poised to hold an essential position in backend programming languages, given its ability to improve website performance. An interesting fact about Kotlin is that it originated from the industry rather than academia, making it a simpler tool than Java that addresses the challenges and problems faced by programmers.
a. Avoids Null-Pointer Exceptions
For example, Kotlin helps developers avoid null-pointer exceptions, making it an effective tool to use in conjunction with Java. Kotlin is now as ubiquitous as Java, and it will have a significant impact on future backend development as it is fully compatible with Java.
Moreover, developers can access a vast library of resources that enables them to write concise and efficient code. This is why more than 61% of developers with over 5 years of experience prefer working with Kotlin.
b. Scalable Applications
When it comes to backend development technologies, Kotlin is a great option for building high-performance and scalable applications. Its compatibility with Java and the ability to access a large library of resources makes it a popular choice among developers.
Additionally, Kotlin's simplicity and ability to address common programming challenges make it an effective tool for creating robust and efficient backend software. Whether you're working on an Android app or a web application, Kotlin is a versatile and powerful programming language that is worth considering for your next backend development project.
c. Easy Learning Curve
The learning curve of Kotlin is very easy. Moreover, if the businesses is looking for streamlining product development, they can move the project to Kotlin easily. Besides, it doesn’t require more than 2-3 engineers to work on product maintenance with Kotlin.
Android development is not the only USP of Kotlin. Since the backend programming language has high interoperability, it suits multi-platform development as well. What’s more, JetBrains has also added Gradle support in Kotlin which enables the developers to write in Gradle files. Thus, writing native iOS applications in Kotlin becomes very easy.
d. Business Benefits
Kotlin facilitates faster development and is comparatively very cheap. Also, Kotlin is a universal backend programming language. Therefore, transfer from one platform to the other becomes very easy.
As mentioned above, Kotlin has a very easy learning curve. Thus, the language is less error-prone and gives the developers a chance to find the errors easily. Kotlin is a very safe and secure backend programming language.
Everyone understands that data security is the most essential thing to rise in the modern business world. The Kotlin developers are integrated into the semantics principles. These principles prevent the occurrence of common mistakes that often happen during the execution of the program.
4. Ruby and Ruby on Rails for standardized web app creation
Ruby on Rails is slower than Python but still is one of the top three well-known backend programming languages. David Hansson in 2003 first wrote Ruby on Rails with an aim to simplify the process of web and app development.
In 2021, Ruby on Rails will play a pivotal role as it helps in reducing the time spent on standardized tasks. It minimizes the website development time by 25% as compared to other languages. In addition to it, there are some amazing advantages of Ruby on Rails that will help businesses in the long run.
Top Ruby on Rails advantages for developers and businesses
We have listed some of the top advantages of this backend development below.
- The code which is written in Ruby on Rails is crisp, clear and very consistent. In addition, this programming language is one of the most time-efficient frameworks in the world.
- It has a large community of developers. Thus if the developers face any problem during web app development, they have a large pool to rely upon.
- It reduces the time taken for web app development as the developers can reuse the codes to a greater extent.
- Ruby on Rails (RoR) works on Model-View-Control-Format. This simply means that it is easier to separate the business logic from the other parts of the app.
- The coding process in RoR is self describable and easily readable. Therefore, the rookie developers do not need any extra documentation to start any new project.
- The developer can develop a prototype of the future website at a faster rate with Ruby on Rails.
The backend programming language is further known for its predictability and stability. Due to its predictable nature, the developers find it easier to add new features according to the requirement. Moreover, the framework is suitable for long-term projects and can be used in all kinds of business industries.
Below is a list of projects which can benefit immensely from Ruby on Rails -
- Database solutions
- Content sites
- Social media sites
- Ecommerce sites
Moreover, we have also listed some of the top companies who prefer Ruby on Rails as their backend programming language. They are:
5. PHP for creating immaculate websites and apps
PHP is a convenient backend programming language that is very flexible and has immaculate features. This is why PHP is considered to be the future of backend development in 2023. Moreover, the syntax of PHP is very expressive which provides creative freedom to the developers.
PHP has inbuilt website development capabilities. It promotes rapid website development by simplifying it with a basic structure. The developers can add features to the app without writing complex and lengthy codes.
a. Flexibility and Automation
This backend programming language allows developers to work with a wide range of relational databases. Moreover, PHP automates common web development tasks like session management, URL mapping, caching, etc. Its built-in security features guards the website against threats.
Besides the established players of the software world, budding entrepreneurs can also use PHP as it is cost-effective. Besides this, the developers can perform the unit test in an efficient manner with PHP. PHPUnit is the object-oriented unit testing framework for PHP. It helps the backend developers to run and write the tests in an efficient manner.
Most of the frameworks in PHP are open-source thus the developers have no dearth of options.
See More: Express JS vs Node JS: What’s the Best Backend Technology?
6. Java: The Industry Stalwart for Backend Technologies
Java has been the go-to language for backend development technologies for over two decades. The language’s popularity lies in its platform independence, allowing developers to write code once and run it on any system. Java is the preferred language for enterprise web development, given its mature ecosystem, ease of scalability, and security features.
a. Scalability and Performance
Java's memory management system, garbage collector, and the efficient handling of thread management make it highly scalable, which allows it to handle large-scale applications without sacrificing performance.
b. Mature Ecosystem
Java's large community of developers has resulted in a massive and mature ecosystem. It has numerous libraries, frameworks, and tools available for developers to choose from, enabling them to write highly efficient and scalable applications.
c. Security Features
Java has built-in security features like Authentication, Authorization, and Cryptography. Moreover, it is highly resistant to viruses and malware, making it one of the most secure backend languages.
7. Golang: The Future of Backend Technologies
Golang is a relatively new backend language that has gained immense popularity due to its simplicity, performance, and concurrency capabilities. It was developed by Google to address the shortcomings of other languages. Golang is primarily used for networked and distributed systems, and it is highly suited for handling complex tasks.
Golang's concurrent design makes it highly efficient for managing concurrent tasks, which is vital for web development. Golang allows developers to run multiple tasks simultaneously, making it highly efficient and scalable.
Golang's syntax is relatively simple, making it easy to learn and use for developers. Golang has a small and consistent standard library that makes development quick and straightforward.
Golang is a compiled language that produces highly optimized machine code, making it highly performant. It also has efficient memory management and garbage collection, resulting in a lower memory footprint and faster response times.
8. C#: The .NET Powerhouse for Backend Technologies
C# is a powerful backend language that is designed to run on the .NET framework. It is an object-oriented language that is easy to learn and use. C# is best suited for developing Windows-based applications and is highly used in enterprise web development.
C# is a simple language that is easy to learn and use. Its syntax is similar to that of Java, making it easier for developers to switch between the two.
b. Cross-Platform Compatibility
C# can be used on any platform that supports the .NET framework. This allows developers to create applications that run on multiple platforms, making it highly scalable.
C# is a compiled language that produces highly optimized code, making it highly performant. It also has efficient memory management and garbage collection, resulting in a lower memory footprint and faster response times.
9. Perl: The flexible Language for Backend Technologies
Perl is a dynamic, high-level backend language that is highly flexible and easy to use. It is best suited for web development, and its primary use is in building web applications, system administration, and network programming.
a. Regular Expressions
Perl has excellent support for regular expressions, making it easy to handle and manipulate text. This makes it highly efficient in processing large amounts of data.
The Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) has a vast collection of modules, libraries, and tools that can be used to develop highly efficient and scalable web applications.
10. C++: The Powerful and Efficient Language for Backend Development
C++ is a high-performance language that is used for building system software, embedded systems, game engines, and much more. It is a powerful language that allows developers to write high-performance code that can take full advantage of the hardware.
a. Speed and Efficiency
C++ is one of the fastest programming languages available and is known for its high performance. It is an ideal language for developing high-performance applications and systems.
b. Large Community and Libraries
C++ has a large and active community of developers who have created a vast array of libraries and tools. This makes it easier to develop complex systems and applications.
Choosing the right backend technology depends on a variety of factors, including the specific requirements of the project, the skills of the development team, and the existing infrastructure. Each of these technologies has its strengths and weaknesses, and it is important to carefully evaluate them before making a decision.
Ultimately, the best choice for a given project will depend on the specific needs and goals of the development team.
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